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Sunday, October 30, 2022

Mumps: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Management by Nurses Note


 Epidemiology of Mumps

 • Mumps is an RNA virus belonging to the paramyxovirus family which causes mumps. Respiratory droplets and direct contact with infected saliva are the modes of transmission. 

• Mumps is as contagious as influenza and rubella but not as infectious as chickenpox or measles. 

• Mumps usually affects children and adolescents and was the most typical cause of viral meningitis in children before the introduction of MMR. In the last decade, there has been a 10-fold increase in mumps, 90% in those aged >15 years old due to inadequate vaccination.


 Clinical features of Mumps

• The incubation period is 17–19 days. 

• Many infections are subclinical. 

• Fever, headache, sore throat, myalgia, and tender enlargement of the parotid glands develop in two-thirds of cases. The fever and swelling resolve over 1–2 weeks. 

• Some cases, especially in adolescents, may present with epididymo-orchitis (usually unilateral) or meningitis, without parotid swelling. Pancreatitis, oophoritis, deafness, and arthritis may also occur.

 Investigations of Mumps

• The diagnosis is made clinically and confirmed serologically. 

• The virus can also be cultured in CSF, saliva, or urine. 

Management of Mumps

• A full recovery is usual. The treatment is entirely for symptoms, especially analgesia for orchitis, which may require opiate analgesics and cool compresses. 

• Meningitis is self-limiting. Encephalitis is rare but can be fatal. 

• Sterility following epididymo-orchitis is very uncommon.

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