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Tuesday, September 19, 2023

Acute Tonsillitis: Types, Signs and Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Complications by Nurses Note


Acute Tonsillitis

It is an acute inflammation of faucial tonsil which is most commonly seen in children.

Types Acute Tonsillitis

It may be of acute catarrhal, acute follicular,

parenchymatous or membranous type.

Causative Organism of Acute Tonsillitis

• Streptococcus pneumoniae (90%)

• Staphylococcus

• Pneumococcus; H. influenzae

• Diphtheroids

• Viral infections.

Predisposing Factors

• Upper respiratory tract infections

• Chronic sinusitis, chronic tonsillitis

• Lowered body resistance

• Blood dyscrasias

• Exposure to contagious infection

• Excessive use of cold drinks

• Excessive pollution

• Foreign body impaction.

Clinical Features

Symptoms of Acute Tonsillitis

• Sudden onset with fever of more than 40°C; bodyaches

• Pain throat or raw feeling in the throat

• Painful swallowing

• Thick and muffled voice

• Trismus and pain referred to ear

• Foul breath.

Signs of Acute Tonsillitis

• Markedly congested pillars

• Enlarged and red tonsils

• Crypts filled with purulent material resembling yellow beads of pus

• Jugulodigastric nodes are enlarged and tender

• Tongue may be coated.

Diagnosis of Acute Tonsillitis

• Blood for Hb, TLC, and DLC (which shows increased polymorph count)

• Throat swab for culture and sensitivity 

Treatment of Acute Tonsillitis

• Complete bedrest

• Soft, warm and simple diet

• Antibiotics such as amoxicillin, and cefadroxil in appropriate doses for 5-7 days

• Anti-inflammatory drugs

• KMnO4 gargles (1: 4000)

• Vitamins such as vitamins C, D, B complex.

• Lozenges with local, anaesthetic action.

Complications of Acute Tonsillitis

• Peritonsillitis

• Abscesses in the throat

• Laryngeal oedema

• Otitis media

• Septicaemia

• Septic foci leading to SABE, nephritis or rheumatic fever.

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