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Friday, July 10, 2020

PNEUMONIA RAPID REVIEW FOR EXAMS

PNEUMONIA



Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lungs-affecting primarily the microscopic air sacs known as alveoli. Typical symptoms include a cough, chest pain fever, and difficulty in breathing. Diagnostic tools include  X-ray and culture of sputum.

ETIOLOGY
  • Bacterial infection: Gram-positive (e.g. Strep pneumonia, Strep Aurious) Gram-negative ( e.g. H. influenza, pseudomonas, anaerobic bacteria)
  • Viral infection: Influenza virus, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus.
  • Fungus infection, such as candidiasis, histoplasmosis, etc.
  • Mycoplasma and protozoa in AIDS.
TYPES OF PNEUMONIA 
  • Segmental pneumonia: Only in one small segmental lobes of lungs.
  • Bilateral pneumonia: Both side segmental lobes of lungs are affected.
  • Lobar pneumonia: Complete lobes affected.
  • Bronchopneumonia: Patchy like formation in the lungs.
CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS
  • Systemic
    • High fever
    • Chills
  • Central
    • Headaches
    • Loss of appetite
    • Mood swings
  • Skin
    • Clammines
    • Blueness
  • Vascular
    • Low blood pressure 
  • Lungs
    • Cough with sputum
    • Shortness of breath
    • Pleuritic chest pain
    • Hemoptysis 
  • Heart
    • High heart rate 
  • Gastric
    • Nausea
    • Vomiting
  • Muscular
    • Fatigue
    • Aches
  • Joint 
    • Pain
MANAGEMENT
  • Prevention of pneumonia by vaccination.
  • Use of antibiotic therapy for treatment, e.g. penicillin, erythromycin, cephalosporin, amikacin, ampicillin, etc
  • Bronchodilators are used.
  • Analgesics for chest pain,
  • Provide comfortable position to the client.
  • Teaching and encouraging effective coughing and deep breathing exercise.
  • Monitor ABG for hypoxemia.
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